Understanding how the climate changed in the past is both fascinating and a means to contextualise current climate changes. In this framework, lakes and the sediments accumulated in their beds are precious natural archives with biological and geochemical indicators, that help us understand current climate change and its causes. Specifically, Lake Ohrid, straddling between North Macedonia and Albania, which is considered one of Europe’s oldest lakes, and has proved ideal to study Mediterranean climate changes. An international consortium including several Italian universities and research centres has drilled as part of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program reaching depths of 568 metres, corresponding to about 1.4 million years ago. The study of pollen and other environmental indicators combined with physical and mathematical models has highlighted the connections between the Mediterranean climate and low latitudes over an exceptionally long period of time. Results from the analysis of Lake Ohrid data will become part of the greater picture of the climate on our planet and of the impact of human activity over the past centuries.