On December the 3rd 1967 al Groote Schuur Hospital of Cape Town Christian Barnard, then a young surgeon, transplanted the heart of woman who had died in a car accident into Louis Washkansky, a 54 year old former sportsman suffering from diabetes and with a very severe heart condition. The operation lasted nine hours and the patient survived 18 days. A month later Barnard attempted another transplant on the dentist Philip Blaiberg, who survived 19 months. Since then heart transplants have multiplied and current thousands of people are living with a new heart. Anti-rejection drugs have played a key role, especially cyclosporine. Progress has also taken place in other area, from the surgical technique, heart lung transplants, mini-invasive techniques and trans-catheter procedures and artificial hearts. What challenges does the future hold? Regenerated organs and xeno-transplantation. The conference will give an idea of the state of the art and coming targets.